Many studies have clarified the molecular mechanisms of unhealthy diet-induced obesity, but it does not provide insight into how diet causes neurological changes in individual brains. Recently, in a research report published in the international magazine Cell Metabolism, scientists from Yale University found that a high-fat diet may induce disorders in the function of the hypothalamus in the brain. The hypothalamus can regulate the body’s body weight balance and metabolism. .
In the article, the researchers evaluated the molecular mechanism of stimulation of hypothalamic inflammation on a high-fat diet (especially in diets with high fat and carbohydrate content), which is a physiological response in individuals with obesity and malnutrition. The researchers point out that hypothalamic inflammation occurs three days after the individual ingests high-fat foods, even before the body begins to show signs of obesity. They are very interested in these changes happening so quickly. Even before the change in weight appeared, they wanted to understand the cellular mechanisms behind it.
The researchers observed the occurrence of hypothalamic inflammation in the brain of animals under a high-fat diet, and found that the physical structure of microglia in the brain of animals has changed significantly. Microglia are regulated in the central nervous system of the body. The first line of defense, they found that the activation of microglia depends on changes in mitochondria. The mitochondria in microglia in the animal body of a high-fat diet are very small, and the size of the mitochondria depends on a solution called Coupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a special protein that regulates energy utilization in mitochondria, affects energy control in the hypothalamus, and glucose self-balancing.
When receiving a high-fat diet-stimulated inflammatory signal, it stimulates high-fat diet animals to consume more food, leading to obesity, when UCP2-mediated microglia activation in the animal body affects the brain. The function of neurons, however, when UCP2 is removed from microglia to block this mechanism, animals exposed to a high-fat diet reduce food intake and become resistant to weight gain.
This study not only clarifies the mechanism of high-fat diets affecting the health of the body, but also reveals the mechanism by which unhealthy diets change the body’s food intake from the nerves. When we are exposed to certain types of food, the unique mechanisms in the brain are activated; From a point of view, this may be a very important mechanism, but when the diet rich in fats and carbohydrates continues to appear, it may be harmful to the health of the body.
The researchers’ long-term goal is to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate the amount of food intake in the body. Later, they will continue to study in depth how activated microglia affect many diseases in the brain, including Alzheimer’s disease, etc. Hair disease is a special neurological disorder that is directly related to changes in microglia in the brain and is associated with a higher incidence in obese people.