In a new meta-analysis, researchers from Harvard University’s Chen Zengxi School of Public Health, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women’s Hospital found that people who adhere to plant-based diets suffer from type 2 The risk of diabetes is lower than those who do not adhere to a plant-based diet. The researchers also found this association to be more relevant for those who emphasize healthy plant-based foods. The results of the study were published online July 22, 2019 in the JAMA Internal Medicine journal entitled “Association Between Plant-Based Dietary Patterns and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”.
The first author of the paper, Frank Qian, a graduate student in the Department of Nutrition at Harvard University’s Chen Zengxi School of Public Health, said, “The botanical diet has become more popular in recent years, so we believe that it is important to quantify their overall association with diabetes risk. Especially because these diets may vary greatly in their food composition.”
Although previous studies have shown that botanical diet patterns may help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, there is a lack of research into an overall analysis of epidemiological evidence. According to these researchers, this new meta-analysis provides the most comprehensive evidence to date for maintaining a link between a healthy plant-based diet and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.
The researchers identified nine studies that explored this association and published a deadline of February 2019. Their meta-analysis included health data from 3,070,99 participants (23,544 of whom had type 2 diabetes). They analyzed the overall picture of adhering to a botanical diet that includes healthy plant foods (such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and beans) and less healthy plant foods (such as potatoes, white flour, A mixture of sugar and an appropriate amount of animal product. They also studied the “healthy” plant-based diet, which was defined as a healthy plant-based food that reduces unhealthy plant-based food intake.
The researchers found that people with the highest plant-based dietary adherence had a 23% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those with lower adherence. They also found that this association is enhanced for those who consume healthy plant foods.
According to these researchers, one mechanism that may explain the association between adherence to a plant-based diet and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes is that healthy plant foods can improve insulin sensitivity and blood pressure, reduce body weight, and reduce, individually or collectively. Systemic inflammation, which leads to a reduced risk of diabetes.
According to Qi Sun, an associate professor of nutrition at the Department of Nutrition, Harvard University’s Chen Zengxi School of Public Health, “In general, these data emphasize the importance of adhering to a plant-based diet to achieve or maintain good health. People should choose fresh fruits and Vegetables, whole grains, tofu and other healthy plant foods form the basis of these diets.”
Prior to this, Hyunju Kim, Casey M. Rebholz and his team at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in the United States pointed out that eating a healthy plant-based diet may help prevent chronic kidney disease (chronic kidney disease). CKD) was produced and the results of the study were published in the journal CJASN entitled “Plant-Based Diets and Incident CKD and Kidney Function”.
In addition, researchers at Zhejiang University in China pointed out in June 2012 that vegetarians had significantly lower ischemic heart disease mortality (29% reduction) and overall cancer incidence (18% reduction) compared to non-vegetarians. The results of the study were published in the journal Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism entitled “Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Vegetarians: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review”.
In recent years, many studies have pointed out that plant-based diets or vegan diets can lead to slender waist circumference, normal blood pressure and lower risk of heart disease, diabetes and some cancers, and more and more people are paying attention, and More and more people are starting to eat only fruits, vegetables, beans, whole bran cereals and other wholesome plant foods. But does this mean that a vegan diet is nothing but harmless? of course not.
For example, a survey of more than 50 German vegetarians by German researchers shows that although these vegetarians have lower cholesterol levels, most of them show symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, which makes them high in the blood. The concentration of homocysteine is elevated, and this substance can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, these findings also suggest that not eating meat may also lead to lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the blood, which is also detrimental to cardiovascular health.
Furthermore, Dr. Roman Pawlak of the University of East Carolina in the United States pointed out that vegetarians generally lack vitamin B12, and vitamin B12 deficiency may offset the preventive effect of vegetarian diet on cardiovascular disease. To further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to take vitamin B12 supplements.
Therefore, although the botanical diet or the vegan diet has many beneficial effects, over-emphasis on eating vegetarian diets increases the risk of cardiovascular disease due to nutritional imbalance.