Dietary fiber is one of the seven essential nutrients for the human body, and it is also the most widely distributed and most abundant polysaccharide in nature. It is widely found in fruits, vegetables, cereals and legumes.
According to its chemical structure, it can be divided into four categories: cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and pectin.
According to the solubility of dietary fiber in water, it can be divided into soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber.
Function of dietary fiber
Promote digestion and help absorption
Dietary fiber can increase the time that food is chewed in the mouth, can promote the secretion of digestive enzymes in the intestine, and accelerate the excretion of intestinal contents, which is beneficial to the digestion and absorption of food.
Regulate blood lipids and prevent cardiovascular disease
Dietary fiber can be combined with bile acids to excrete them, reducing the concentration of bile and cholesterol. . Therefore, regular intake of dietary fiber, especially cereal fiber, not only helps prevent hyperlipidemia, but also prevents the occurrence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.
Regulate blood sugar and prevent diabetes
Dietary fiber can delay the absorption of glucose by the intestine, and it will not be absorbed by the intestine, so that blood sugar will not rise rapidly after eating.
Regulation of intestinal flora balance and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases
The balance of bacteria in the intestine is an important guarantee for human immunity. Dietary fiber can be fermented and used by probiotics in the colon to play the role of prebiotics. The “short-chain fatty acids” (acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid) produced can help regulate the pH of the intestinal tract and help the growth of probiotics To maintain a healthy intestinal environment.
Control weight and prevent obesity
Dietary fiber-rich foods are usually more full, which can delay gastric emptying and reduce the absorption of other carbohydrates to help control weight.
Common high-fiber foods (insoluble dietary fiber content of 100g edible portion)
Grain: 0.1-10.8g, arranged from wheat grains, barley, corn (dry), buckwheat noodles, indica rice noodles, sorghum rice, black rice from most to less. Oatmeal: 8-9g; Oatmeal: 5-6g
The cellulose content of potatoes and sweet potatoes is about 2-3g.
Beans and products: 0.1-15.5g, arranged in order from soy beans, green beans, broad beans (with skin), peas, kidney beans (white), black beans, red beans, mung beans.
Regardless of cereals, potatoes, or beans, in general, the finer the processing, the less cellulose content.
Vegetables: The bamboo shoots have the highest content, the dried cellulose content of the bamboo shoots reaches 30-40g, and the dried red peppers (tips) exceed 40g. The rest contains more cellulose: bracken, cauliflower, spinach, pumpkin, cabbage, and rape.
Fungi (dried): Dried algae food generally contains high dietary fiber. The cellulose content of pine mushrooms is close to 50g, and the order of more than 30g is as follows: hairy cabbage, pine mushroom, mushroom, white fungus Fungus. In addition, the dietary fiber content of laver is also high, reaching 21.6g.
Nuts and seeds: 3-14g. Above 10g are: black sesame, pine nuts, almonds; below 10g are white sesame, walnuts, hazelnuts, walnuts, sunflower seeds, watermelon seeds, peanut kernels.
Fruits and products: The largest content is dried red fruit with a cellulose content of nearly 50g, followed by tartare, dried mulberry, cherry, jujube, black jujube, jujube, jujube, pomegranate, apple, and pear.
How should I eat?
- Slowly increase the amount of high-fiber food to allow the body enough time to adapt, otherwise it may cause constipation or diarrhea.
- People with poor gastrointestinal function are not suitable for intake of a large amount of dietary fiber, such as infants, the elderly, and those who are sick after gastrointestinal surgery.
- A variety of combinations, evenly distribute the dietary fiber required for one meal to three meals, and pay attention to the diversity of food, but also pay attention to the amount of vegetables should be more than the amount of fruits, because fruits contain a lot of fructose, excessive intake Easy to cause obesity.