I often hear the playful words of parenting: “Boss is raised by books, and the second child is raised by pigs.” I believe that many pregnant mothers are also first-born mothers like the author. They just broke their hearts. They always worry about the lack of nutrition during pregnancy. Women who feel pregnant have to supplement it to some extent. They do n’t make up their minds. In particular, we see the micro-businesses on the ticket circle and the various nutritional supplements recommended by major online celebrities during pregnancy. Others are eating, not eating. I’m sorry baby! Excuse me, is it really necessary to buy everything?
Let’s first take a look at how the authoritative guidelines such as the latest edition of the Chinese Dietary Guidelines for Pregnant Women (2016) are recommended?
The general principles of the dietary guidelines for the general population include diverse foods, cereals, eating balance, healthy body mass, eating more fruits and vegetables, milk, soybeans, eating fish, poultry, eggs, lean meat in moderation, reducing salt and oil, and controlling sugar. Alcohol, put an end to waste, and create new foods.
The principle of dietary guidelines for pregnant women is based on the six basic principles of dietary guidelines for the general population, which are supplemented with five principles.
① Supplement folic acid, often eat foods rich in iron, choose iodized salt
② If you have severe morning sickness, you can eat a small number of meals to ensure the intake of foods containing the necessary amount of carbohydrates.
③ Properly increase the intake of milk, fish, poultry, eggs, lean meat in the middle and late pregnancy
④ Moderate physical activity to maintain proper weight gain during pregnancy
⑤Non-smoking alcohol, give birth to new life happily, and actively prepare for breastfeeding
From the “Chinese Dietary Guidelines for Pregnant Women” (2016), it can be seen that the key nutrients recommended during pregnancy are:
Folic acid and iodine are needed throughout pregnancy, as well as iron and calcium that increase in demand during the second and third trimester.
Let me now plant the “four elements” for pregnant mothers!
Folic acid, ready to eat 3 months before pregnancy!
Folic acid deficiency in early pregnancy can cause stillbirth, miscarriage, or malformations of the fetal brain and neural tube. Increased blood volume and erythropoiesis during mid- and late pregnancy. Folic acid deficiency can affect DNA synthesis in the nucleus of young red blood cells, delay and stagnate the nucleus’ maturation and division, affect hemoglobin synthesis, and cause megaloblastic anemia.
Most Chinese and international guidelines recommend that the supplemental dose of folic acid for pregnant women is 0.4 mg per day, but many careful pregnant women will find that a major brand of multivitamins clearly states that the folic acid content of each vitamin is 0.8 mg , Double the amount, can you eat it?
Guidelines / Consensus
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
“Folic Acid Supplement to Prevent Neural Tube Defects” (2017)
The recommended dose is 0.4-0.8 mg per dose.
Canadian Obstetrics and Gynaecology Society
Primary and secondary prevention of neural tube defects and other folate-associated congenital malformations with folic acid and multivitamin supplementation before pregnancy (2015)
After the high-dose supplementation until the 12th week of pregnancy, continue to supplement 0.4-1.0mg daily to delivery.
Italian Nutrition Foundation
Consensus on Dietary and Nutritional Needs of Pregnant and Lactating Women (2016)
Folic acid supplementation should begin two months before pregnancy and even reach 0.8 mg / day.
Therefore, it is reasonable to supplement 0.8mg of folic acid daily. In addition to oral folic acid supplements, you can also eat more foods rich in folic acid, such as green leafy vegetables, to develop a healthy lifestyle.
Iron, women in middle and late pregnancy should increase their intake appropriately!
Iron deficiency and anemia can reduce maternal resistance, lead to maternal weakness, and increase the risk of death in severe anemia in the delivery process.
★ Iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy is a common malnutrition in pregnant women in China, with an incidence of about 30%. The International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommends that women with high incidence of anemia supplement with 60mg of elemental iron daily.
★ Diagnosed pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia, it is recommended to add 100-200mg of elemental iron daily.
★ Pregnant women with thalassemia during pregnancy need to consult the relevant clinician if they need iron supplementation treatment. Never take iron.
During the middle and late pregnancy, you should eat iron-rich foods, add 20-50g red meat every day, and eat animal viscera or blood 1-2 times a week. Iodine is important and cannot be ignored!
Iodine deficiency during pregnancy, mild cases lead to fetal brain development retardation, mental retardation, and slow response; severe cases lead to congenital cretinism, manifested as short, dull, deaf, dumb, paralyzed and other symptoms.
For areas with iodine deficiency and iodine deficiency in the soil, it is recommended to add iodine as early as possible during pregnancy, taking 200-250ug orally daily. For women who insist on iodized salt and seafood 2-3 times a week, the daily intake of iodine is only 100-150ug, which is only half of the recommended dose during pregnancy and lactation. In order to meet the need for iodine during pregnancy, in addition to insisting on the use of iodized salt, pregnant women should often eat iodine-rich seafood such as kelp and laver. Calcium, not enough food, calcium to make up!
Lack of calcium nutrition during pregnancy, the mother will use the calcium in her bones to maintain blood calcium concentration and meet the needs of fetal bone growth and development, therefore, the lack of calcium nutrition during pregnancy will be more harmful to the mother’s health.
The recommended daily intake of 1000-1200mg in the second trimester of pregnancy. Women in high-income countries can get enough calcium through their diet, and usually don’t need extra supplements during pregnancy. In our country, due to the influence of eating habits, most people cannot do it. Therefore, calcium must be replenished.
Studies have shown that Chinese women without milk during pregnancy have a 16% decrease in postpartum bone mineral density compared with non-pregnant women of the same age. Therefore, it is recommended to increase the daily intake of milk by 200 g from the second trimester to bring the total milk intake to 500 g / d. Studies have shown that drinking milk for pregnant women reduces the risk of milk allergies after birth.
alert! Don’t let calcium supplements add to the troubles of constipation during pregnancy!
I believe that many pregnant mothers reject calcium and do not want to eat it. An important reason is that they have severe constipation. I feel the same way. Crazy! Please recommend a lot of calcium for constipation!
For pregnant women who are prone to constipation when taking calcium, it is recommended to try starting with a small dose, or change to another brand of calcium. Constipation is a side effect of taking calcium, which can be tolerated slowly and gradually disappear.
However, if you have severe constipation, you should not use force to defecate, as it may cause serious adverse consequences such as miscarriage and premature birth. Therefore, medical treatment of constipation during pregnancy is very important.
★ Non-drug treatment: Improve dietary habits, eat more fiber, drink more water, exercise moderately, and establish a good bowel habits.
★ Drug treatment: FDA recommended wheat fiber granules, lactulose, and psyllium for pregnancy safety classification B.
Pregnancy is a difficult and happy process. The pregnant mothers of glass heart don’t make up blindly anymore. Remember, you only need to make up if you are lacking. We believe that a balanced diet, moderate exercise and a happy mood during pregnancy are more beneficial to mother and child health!