Viruses, infections, prevention, everything you want to know is here

On December 31, 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) China Country Office was informed that an unexplained case of pneumonia was found in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China;

On January 7, 2020, a new coronavirus was detected in the laboratory;

1On January 12, 2020, WHO officially named 2019 New Coronavirus (2019nCov).

What is 2019nCov?

There are currently six known coronaviruses that can infect humans, four of which are more common in the population and generally cause only mild respiratory symptoms similar to the common cold; the other two are the SARS coronavirus and MERS coronavirus that we are familiar with.

The new coronavirus discovered this time is a new coronavirus strain previously not found in humans. Compared with SARS, 2019nCov is milder in terms of lethality and infectivity.

From January 10, 2020 to now, a total of 6 sets of 2019nCov genome sequences have been published. The results of the study showed that the gene sequences of the six 2019nCov genes were almost identical, and the similarity with SARS was about 70%, and the similarity with MERS was about 40%. Genetic differences arise from two key proteins that interact with coronaviruses and host cells.

Researchers speculate that the native host of 2019nCov is bat, but there may be more intermediate hosts from bat to human.

What is the source of infection?

This afternoon, Gao Fu, a member of the high-level expert group of the National Health and Medical Commission, said in response to a reporter’s question:

2019 2019nCov has been detected at the wildlife sales office, but it is not yet known which animal it is.

症状 What are the symptoms of infection?

N2019nCov is mainly spread by droplets, the main performances are:

Cough, fever, dyspnea and rapid heartbeat during daily activities or rest;

Severe patients will develop acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, difficult to correct metabolic acidosis, and coagulopathy.

Who is a close contact?

Living, working and studying together with the patient;

Failure to take effective preventive measures during diagnosis, treatment, and visiting cases;

Other patients and accompanying staff in the same ward as the case.

What are the transmission methods?

Direct transmission:Directly inhale the sneezing, coughing, talking droplets and exhaled breath of the infected person;

Aerosol transmission:

The infected person sneezes, coughs, and talks in the droplets floating in the air, where particles <2.5pm are mixed with the air to form an aerosol. Infection after inhalation;

Contact transmission:

The infected person’s sneezing, coughing droplets, and saliva, sputum, saliva and other secretions will be deposited on the surface of daily necessities. Once they contact these infected items, their hands will be contaminated. Nasal cavity, eyes and other mucous membranes can cause infections.

How to prevent it?

wear mask:

N95 mask> disposable mask (medical surgical mask)> common mask;

N95 mask can prevent droplet infection caused by patient’s body fluid or blood splash. Try to choose N95 mask without breathing valve;

Disposable masks (medical surgical masks) can prevent respiratory infections to a certain extent. When choosing, pay attention to the words “medical surgical masks” clearly on the package;

Ordinary masks cannot prevent infection.

In addition, when wearing the mask and face with as little gap as possible, fully unfold the folded surface and completely cover the mouth, nose and jaw.

Any type of mask must be replaced regularly. It is recommended to replace the mask every 2-4 hours.

Cultivate good daily habits

Whether you cough, sneeze or runny nose, cover it with paper and handkerchiefs. And try not to cover it directly by hand;

Throw used paper towels into closed trash immediately;

Keep indoor ventilation constantly;

Spitting everywhere;

The meat and eggs are thoroughly cooked.

Wash your hands frequently

What time?

Before and after meals, going home, touching garbage, touching animals, coughing or sneezing, before, during and after preparing food.

What wash?

Flowing water + soap solution.

How long does it wash?

Not less than 15s.

How to wash?

6 major parts: palm, back of hand, ten fingers, thumb, fingertips, wrist.

How to prevent during the Spring Festival?

I ca n’t go out without going out.

If you must go out:

Check the temperature of the destination in advance and prepare suitable clothing;

Wash your hands before wearing a mask;

When wearing a mask, try to avoid touching the inside surface of the mask to reduce the possibility of the mask being polluted;

Consider the temperature difference between indoor and outdoor, and inside and outside the car, adjust clothing in time to avoid colds.

How to prepare food?

No contact with stray animals, garbage and waste water in the market;

Separate raw food and cooked food;

Wash your hands between raw and cooked food;

Avoid contact with eyes, nose and mouth;

Cook meat thoroughly.