We may have heard that eating too much fat-containing red meat is harmful to the health of the body, while lean meat and chicken are better choices, and a recent study published in the international journal The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition shows that The level of white meat affecting the body’s cholesterol may be as bad as red meat. The study found that white meat and red meat have the same effect on body cholesterol levels, although this may be considered good news for red meat lovers, but researchers need to conduct more in-depth research to get more detailed information. .
How did the research work?
The researchers compared three different diets. One of the main sources of protein in the diet was red meat (beef and pork), the other from poultry (chicken and turkey), and the third from botanical. Food, including beans, nuts, grains and soy products.
They want to determine the effects of different diets on specific lipid classes. Blood lipids are markers that indicate the risk of heart disease. The researchers measured lipid markers, including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, harmful cholesterol) and apolipoprotein B (apoB). And the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (good cholesterol). At the same time, the researchers also want to know if the changes in blood lipid levels are higher when the background diet pattern is higher in saturated fat (mainly from whole milk and butter) or when the saturated fat content is lower.
For the study, they studied 177 adults with normal blood cholesterol levels, following high-level saturated fatty acid diets (14% of total energy intake) or low-level saturated fatty acid diets (accounting for intake). 7% of total energy). In both groups, the researchers further randomized them to three different types of diets, namely red meat, white meat, and vegetable protein-derived diets. Each group lasted for four weeks, and the main source of protein in the meat came from For lean red meat and white meat, in the plant diet, the protein comes from beans, nuts, grains and soy products.
The researchers collected and guided the participants’ dietary information weekly, and the participants also performed certain physical exercises and kept their weight as stable as possible so that these factors did not affect the results of the study; Another effect of protein levels, the researchers asked participants to rest between two different diet patterns for 2-7 weeks, and then return to normal eating patterns.
What did the study discover?
The final investigator obtained the results of 113 participants. The researchers found that LDL cholesterol and apoB levels were lower in the body’s blood after the plant protein diet cycle, compared with the red meat and white meat stages. Background diets may be unrelated to high levels or low levels of saturated fat. There was no statistically significant difference in blood lipid levels in people who consumed red meat compared to those who consumed white meat.
The researchers said that people with high levels of saturated fatty acids had higher levels of LDL cholesterol, apoB, and larger LDL particles in the blood of people who consumed high levels of saturated fatty acids. Therefore, all dietary protein sources and levels of saturated fatty acids ingested will have a significant impact on the body’s total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-LDL cholesterol and apoB levels.
How should the results of the study be explained?
Although each of the tested diets lasted only four weeks, the study was very important, and few people saw direct interventions comparing different types of meat and protein sources and their impact on heart disease risk factors. This is partly due to the challenges and costs of providing food and allowing people to follow a specific diet. Most of the studies to date have been cohort studies, and researchers often categorize what the population eats, followed by years of follow-up to see what happens to their health.
In a review article on cohort studies, the researchers found that people who consumed more poultry had a higher risk of stroke than those who consumed less poultry, while another study found that People who consume more red meat and processed meat are at higher risk of stroke than those who consume the same amount of poultry.
In this study we need to know a few things. First, the researchers used the finest red and white meat cuts and removed all visible fat and skin. If the participants ingested fat meat, the researchers Will see different results. Significant changes in different dietary interruptions (2-7 weeks) may also affect outcomes, and participants with longer rest periods will have more time to change their body’s blood cholesterol than participants with shorter breaks. Level.
This short-term study did not provide evidence that choosing lean white meat instead of red meat is good or bad for the health of the body, but the findings are consistent with the Heart Foundation’s recommendation that it include more in our diet. A botanical diet, a diet containing healthy fats and lower levels of saturated fatty acids, especially lean and poultry.
In this study, the researchers said that lean meat and lean meat (removing all visible fat and skin) had the same effect on blood lipid levels and, more importantly, compared to red meat and white meat. The diet of vegetable protein sources (beans, nuts, grains, and soy products) can lower the body’s blood lipid levels, regardless of whether the participants are placed on a high or low level saturated fat diet, and the study The effect of fish diet on blood lipids in the body was not observed.