Low incidence of hypertension in Southern Spicy areas
“Chongqing people love spicy food. According to relevant statistics, there are less than 5,000 cardiovascular patients in the top three hospitals in Chongqing. This is a very low incidence of cardiovascular disease.” Professor Zhu Zhiming of Chongqing Third Military Medical University said that China ’s Medical investigation shows that there is a large regional difference in the incidence of cardiovascular metabolic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and obesity. Taking hypertension as an example, in the north, almost 1 in 5 people will develop hypertension. However, in the south, the incidence of hypertension is only about 15% to 18%. The incidence of the above diseases in the northern region is significantly higher than that in the south. One of the important reasons is the higher dietary salt intake of northern residents.
Chili pepper is a favorite food and seasoning for people in the central and southwestern regions of Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan and Chongqing. Spicy food is an important dietary culture in these regions. Spicy food habits seem to be related to the lower incidence of cardiovascular metabolic disease in these regions.
Animal experiments show that capsaicin can prolong life
Dietary capsaicin can accelerate the body’s metabolism. Can dietary capsaicin protect the cardiovascular system and reverse the damage of cardiovascular function? The research team led by Zhu Zhiming conducted experiments with hereditary spontaneously hypertensive rats, and found that there are many capsaicin receptors on the vascular endothelium. Capsaicin can significantly enhance vasodilation and reduce spontaneity when activated by capsaicin Blood pressure in hypertensive rats. The study was published in the internationally renowned journal Cell Metabolism.
In addition, capsaicin can also make cerebral vascular lumen thinner and larger in diameter, thereby preventing stroke. Studies have found that stroke-type mice without capsaicin may only live for an average of 70 days, but after capsaicin is fed, they can live up to 100 days. “There are many reasons for high blood pressure. Dietary factors are just one of them. Experiments with mice can only prove that there is no harm in eating pepper. As for how many peppers people eat on average, which peppers and how to eat to prevent hypertension, it is very complicated The problem. Considering that many people cannot eat spicy food, it may be possible to restructure capsaicin to change the spicy taste into sweetness, making it more common for the applicable population. “Zhu Zhiming said.
Jiang Weijian, director of the Stroke Medical Treatment Research Center of the Second Artillery General Hospital, said that direct conversion from animal experiments cannot be used to guide the clinic. It is important to know that from basic to clinical and from clinical to basic, there are not many successful conversions. Many of the results cannot be applied clinically. If anyone has done a good job in evidence-based medicine for capsaicin, it can be promoted, but it cannot be promoted in the clinic without evidence-based medicine.
■ Expert opinion
Capsaicin cannot be spicy even if it is useful
● Fan Zhihong, Associate Professor, Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, College of Food Science, China Agricultural University
Although the results of the epidemiological survey mentioned by Professor Zhu Zhiming are objective, they cannot be used to make Beijingers desperately spicy. First of all, we are not sure whether capsaicin must determine the difference in the incidence of cardiovascular disease between the North and the South. It may be caused by the amount of activity, climate factors, other dietary habits, and so on.
In addition, conclusions from mouse experiments cannot be directly inferred to have the same effect on humans. The study itself is a very good theoretical study, and Professor Zhu did not recommend everyone to eat peppers blindly. There have been related studies on pepper and curry abroad, which have proved that capsaicin can promote animal cell metabolism, increase energy consumption, and promote blood circulation.
Beijing also has a lot of spicy people. No research shows that Beijing spicy people are thinner than those who do n’t like spicy food. Capsaicin has its effects, such as the benefits of cardiovascular disease, but no food is perfect, and saying that it is good for the body does not mean that you can eat unlimited.
Capsaicin can cause a burning sensation and increase gastric acid secretion when in contact with mucous membranes. Just as caffeine is good for cardiovascular disease, it may cause osteoporosis. Capsaicin can also cause gastric ulcers, some skin infections, constipation, Hemorrhoids, etc., long-term dietary habits in some places have its ecological significance and rationality, but whether transplantation to other places is suitable requires further research.
Limiting salt is more important in the prevention and treatment of stroke
● Huo Yong, Director of Department of Cardiology and Cardiac Center, Peking University First Hospital, Chairman of Cardiovascular Physician Branch of Chinese Medical Association
Different races and different populations, under different genetic susceptibility conditions, the effects of different external diets are different. Capsaicin has been proven in animal experiments to prevent cardiovascular diseases, and people in Chongqing and Sichuan can proudly say that we have less coronary heart disease because we love to eat peppers, but we cannot prove this from the perspective of crowd control. The most important measures for preventing and treating stroke and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the population are salt restriction and low-salt diet, especially for the general situation of excessive salt intake in Chinese people.
In addition, the Chinese people are generally deficient in folic acid from south to north, and the benefits of folic acid supplementation in the United States are very obvious. Strengthen the control of blood pressure in hypertensive patients, 200 million hypertensive patients nationwide, 50% of hypertensive patients induce cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, supplement folic acid, eat more fruits and vegetables, and foods rich in B vitamins, and emphasize low fat and low sugar Low-calorie diet is very important. From the public level, we do not promote drinking capsaicin today with vinegar.